The 1997 Constitution of The Gambia provides four modes of acquisition of citizenship in The Gambia: Birth, Descent, Marriage, and Naturalisation. Section 9 of the Constitution states that citizenship by birth is acquired by a person born in The Gambia to Gambian parents or where one of his or her parent is Gambian during his or her birth.
A person born outside The Gambia to Gambian parents or where one of his other parents is Gambian acquires a citizenship by descent by virtue of Section 10 of the Constitution.
A person acquires a Gambian citizenship by marriage under Section 11 of the Constitution where he or she is/was married to a Gambian, and since the marriage he or she has been resident in The Gambia for a period of at least seven years. According to Sections 6 and 12 of the Constitution, citizenship by naturalisation is granted to a person who has met all the legal requirements, although it is not granted automatically. Section 7 of the Act further requires that the applicant has to make a declaration renouncing any other citizenship or nationality he or she may possess.
Dual citizenship in the Gambian context is allowed for Gambian citizens. Section 12A of the Constitution allows Gambian citizens who acquire other citizenships to retain their Gambian citizenship unless they desire otherwise. Multiple citizenship for a Gambian, however, is not explicitly provided for.
There are no restrictions for a Gambian to have dual citizenship. A person can decide whether to retain or renounce his or her Gambian citizenship. However, where the Gambian citizen is desirous of renouncing his or her Gambian citizenship, a declaration of same is required to be made in the prescribed manner provided for under Section 9 (1) of the Act.