Australian citizenship is automatically acquired by children born in Australia who have lived in Australia for the first 10 years of their lives. It is also obtained automatically by abandoned children, and children adopted by Australian citizens living in Australia. Citizenship can otherwise be obtained on application by Australian permanent residents, children of Australian citizens, and persons adopted by an Australian citizen under international law.
Australian citizenship may be lost under certain circumstances. These include applications for renunciation of Australian citizenship; where a person is involved in terrorist organisations or acts; where a person has obtained Australian citizenship fraudulently; and where a person serves in the armed forces of a country at war with Australia.
Notably, Australian citizens who obtained their citizenship by conferral (that is where they have applied for Australian citizenship based on their permanent residency) may also have their citizenship revoked by the Minister for Home Affairs if they are convicted of a serious crime.
Dual citizenship is entirely recognised in Australia and the acquisition of a second or subsequent citizenship does not result in the loss of a person’s Australian citizenship.
Dual citizens are also prohibited from holding elected office in the Australian government by virtue of section 44(i) of the Australian Constitution.
Australian citizens who hold another citizenship otherwise enjoy the same rights and privileges as those who hold sole Australian citizenship. Australian dual citizens can freely enter and exit Australia, vote in elections and in referenda, access healthcare and social security services, and receive assistance from overseas Australian embassies and consulates.