With the break-up of Czechoslovakia and the creation of the Czech Republic as an independent state, citizenship issues were regulated by Act No 40 of 1993. This Act has been amended over the years and was fully replaced in 2013 by Act no 186 (“2013 Citizenship Act”). Under the 2013 Citizenship Act, citizenship in the Czech Republic can be obtained by birth, by the establishment of paternity, by adoption or by granting. Under the ius sanguinis principle, a child acquires Czech citizenship at birth if at least one of the parents is a Czech citizen.
As of 1st January 2014, by means of the 2013 Citizenship Act, Czech citizens are permitted to hold dual citizenship. The law stipulates that citizens of the Czech Republic will no longer automatically lose their Czech citizenship upon obtaining foreign citizenship, and foreigners seeking naturalisation are permitted to retain their original citizenship (provided that the law of their country of origin does not stipulate otherwise). In addition, the 2013 Citizenship Act does not specify any consequences in relation to the registration or renunciation conditions and dual citizenship is allowed without any special conditions.