Persons born in Peru are granted Peruvian citizenship on the principle of ius soli. Peruvian nationality may be acquired by individuals born outside of Peruvian territory who have resided in Peru since the age of 5, and whose parents are also foreigners; or by individuals born outside of Peruvian territory to a Peruvian parent. Foreign individuals married to Peruvian citizens may also express their willingness to obtain Peruvian nationality, following two years of marriage. Peruvian nationality is also granted to foreign individuals residing in the territory of Peru who have performed distinguished services to the Peruvian nation.
A naturalisation process is also in place for foreign individuals who wish to become Peruvian citizens. The foreign persons must be older than 18 years of age, have at least two consecutive years of legal residence in Peru from the submission of the request, and have not been absent from the country for more than 183 consecutive or accumulated days in one year. Other requirements such as a clean criminal record and economic solvency, must also be satisfied.
As it is established by Peruvian law, a foreign person who chooses to obtain Peruvian nationality, is not obliged to renounce his/her original nationality. Peru accepts dual and even multiple nationality, thereby the Peruvian nationality is not lost, except by express renunciation before Peruvian authorities.
It is important to note, however, that dual nationality does not confer on the foreign person who naturalises, the rights of Peruvians by birth; that is, foreigners with dual nationality are forbidden from exercising rights of public function in Peru.
On the other hand, Peru maintains a dual nationality agreement with Spain, through which the citizens living in Peru and the Peruvian residents in Spain, shall enjoy the same legal status applicable to nationals in each country, in accordance with its regulations, but this does not imply automatic naturalisation.